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NADA’s AcuDetox for D&A Abstinence
Rural Vets Seek Homemaker Benefit
Alternative Health Benefits for Vets
Gluten Part 3- Herbs
Gluten Part 2- Diet

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OB/GYN

Premenstrual Syndrome

Pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common gynecological complaint. The diagnostic criteria from ACOG and the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV agree that symptoms of PMS are distressing and moderate to severe enough to interfere with a woman’s normal activities and quality of life. Yet, there has been an absence of internationally accepted diagnostic criteria for PMS (Andrea, Rapkin & Winer, 2009). So, how is PMS really diagnosed & distinguished from other similar syndromes?

PAP Smears

The PAP Smear screens for cervical cancer and HPV. Risk factors for developing cervical cancer are smoking, multiple sexual partners, DES exposure, hysterectomy for malignancy, abnormal PAP , and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Regarding STI, there are 4 subtypes of Human Papillovirus (HPV) that account for 80% of all invasive cervical cancers, HPV16 and HPV18 are of particular note. Ladies First (2011) adds:

  • History of sexual abuse
  • Immunodeficiency or HIV infection 
  • History of non-adherence of recommended medical care
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